【“一带一路”非遗项目译介】第5期:阿曼苏丹国和阿拉伯联合酋长国传统表演艺术艾亚拉+阿依特斯即兴表演艺术
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【“一带一路”非遗项目译介】第5期:阿曼苏丹国和阿拉伯联合酋长国传统表演艺术艾亚拉+阿依特斯即兴表演艺术
来源:中国非物质文化遗产网     
作者:中国非物质文化遗产保护中心     
创建时间:2018-02-09 08:48:39

本文为“一带一路”非遗项目译介专题的第5期

译介项目八

阿曼苏丹国和阿拉伯联合酋长国

传统表演艺术艾亚拉

Al-Ayyala, a traditional performing art of the Sultanate of Oman and the United Arab Emirates

图1 阿曼苏丹国和阿拉伯联合酋长国传统表演艺术艾亚拉(来源:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

  ▲ 项目基本信息

入选年份:2014

申报国家:阿曼苏丹国、阿拉伯联合酋长国

名录名册类型:人类非物质文化遗产代表作名录

图2 阿曼苏丹国和阿拉伯联合酋长国传统表演艺术艾亚拉(来源:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

  ▲ 英文简介

Al-Ayyala is a popular and expressive cultural performance practised in north-western Oman and throughout the United Arab Emirates. Al-Ayyala involves chanted poetry, drum music and dance, and simulates a battle scene. Two rows of about twenty men face each other, carrying thin bamboo sticks to signify spears or swords. Between the rows musicians play large and small drums, tambourines and brass cymbals. The rows of men move their heads and sticks synchronously with the drum rhythm and chant poetic lyrics, while other performers move around the rows holding swords or guns, which they occasionally hurl to the sky and catch. In the United Arab Emirates, girls wearing traditional dresses stand at the front, tossing their long hair from side to side. The melody has seven tones in an irregular repeated pattern, and the chanted poetry varies according to the occasion. Al-Ayyala is performed during weddings and other festive occasions in both the Sultanate of Oman and the United Arab Emirates. Performers come from diverse backgrounds and age groups. The lead performer is usually an inherited role and is responsible for training others performers. Al-Ayyala is inclusive of all ages, genders and social classes.

图3 阿曼苏丹国和阿拉伯联合酋长国传统表演艺术艾亚拉(来源:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

▲ 中文简介

在阿曼苏丹国西北部和整个阿拉伯联合酋长国地区,艾亚拉是一种广受欢迎且富于文化表现力的表演艺术。它涵盖诗歌吟唱、鼓乐及舞蹈,并模仿战斗场面。约二十名男子面对面站成两排,手持象征矛或剑的细竹竿。音乐家在队列之间演奏大鼓、小鼓、手鼓和铜钹。成排的男子随着鼓的节奏摇晃头部并舞动手中竹竿,吟唱诗歌;其他表演者围着队列行进,他们手举剑或枪,时尔将其抛向空中再接住。在阿拉伯联合酋长国,女孩们身着传统服装站在队列前面,将她们的长发从一侧甩到另一侧。旋律由七个音以不规则重复模式组合形成。根据场合的不同,吟唱的诗歌有所区别。在阿曼苏丹国和阿拉伯联合酋长国,艾亚拉在婚礼和其他节庆场合表演。表演者背景多样,年龄不同。领头表演者一般遵循家族传承制度,负责训练其他表演者。艾亚达不受年龄、性别和社会阶层的限制,任何人都可参与其中。


译介项目九

阿依特斯即兴表演艺术

Aitysh / Aitys, art of improvisation

图4 阿依特斯即兴表演艺术(来源:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

  ▲ 项目基本信息

入选年份:2015

申报国家:哈萨克斯坦、吉尔吉斯斯坦

名录名册类型:人类非物质文化遗产代表作名录

  

图5 阿依特斯即兴表演艺术(来源:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

▲ 英文简介

Aitysh/Aitys is a contest centred on improvised oral poetry spoken or sung to the accompaniment of traditional musical instruments – the Kazakh dombra or Kyrgyz komuz. Two performers (''akyns'') compete with one other to improvise verses on topical themes in a battle of wits that alternates between humorous ripostes and penetrating philosophical reflections. During the competition, the performers sit opposite one another improvising a dialogue on topics chosen by the audience. The winner is the performer considered to have demonstrated the best musical skills, rhythm, originality, resourcefulness, wisdom and wit. The most meaningful and witty expressions often become popular sayings. The element is practised on a variety of occasions, ranging from local festivities to nationwide events, where practitioners often use the contest to raise important social issues. Although it was traditionally performed only by men, many women now participate in Aitysh/Aitys and use the contest to express women’s aspirations and viewpoints. Today, Aitysh/Aitys is a very popular cultural component of Kyrgyzstan’s and Kazakhstan’s multi-ethnic societies and constitutes a vital part of the identity of bearer communities. Older performers teach and transmit their knowledge and skills to younger generations.

图6 阿依特斯即兴表演艺术(来源:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

▲ 中文简介

阿依特斯是一种在传统乐器哈萨克冬不拉或吉尔吉斯库姆孜伴奏下,表演者即兴创作并吟唱口头诗歌的竞技性表演艺术。两名表演者(“阿肯”)就时事即兴创作诗歌,这种智慧的交锋充满了幽默的回击和深邃的哲学思考。较量中,表演者相对而坐,就观众选择的话题即兴对唱。那些展示出最佳音乐技能、韵律感、独创性,足智多谋且幽默风趣的选手将会胜出。最具意味、最诙谐的表达通常会成为流行用语。该项目可在各种各样的场合表演,从地方节庆到全国性活动,遗产从业者常常会在比赛中引出重要社会问题。虽然传统上,阿依特斯只能由男性表演,但如今,女性也能参与其中,并通过这种竞技表演抒发志向、表达观点。现今,阿依特斯是吉尔吉斯斯坦和哈萨克斯坦多民族社会中极受欢迎的文化组成部分,是传承人群体身份认同的重要构成。年长的阿依特斯表演者将他们的知识和技能传授给年轻一代。

往期回顾请点击:

1.“一带一路”非遗项目译介丨第 1 期:从“一带一路”国家非遗数据说起

2.“一带一路”非遗项目译介丨第 2 期:沙士木卡姆音乐、蒙古族长调民歌

3.“一带一路”非遗项目译介丨第 3 期:塔古尔达,阿拉伯联合酋长国和阿曼苏丹国贝都因人的传统诗歌吟唱+男子群体圣诞颂歌仪式

4.“一带一路”非遗项目译介第4期:地中海饮食文化+吉尔吉斯和哈萨克毡房制作的传统知识和技艺

更多项目译介,请关注下期内容,我们将持续发布。(翻译:朱颖;翻译校对:李楠;图片:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

编辑:朱颖