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【“一带一路”非遗项目译介】第7期:热孜法,传统表演艺术+拔河仪式和比赛
来源:中国非物质文化遗产网     
作者:中国非物质文化遗产保护中心     
创建时间:2018-03-08 08:49:07

本文为“一带一路”非遗项目译介专题的第7期

译介项目十二

热孜法,传统表演艺术

Al-Razfa, a traditional performing art

图1 热孜法表演吸引了大量市民围观(来源:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

  ▲ 项目基本信息

  入选年份:2015

  申报国家:阿拉伯联合酋长国、阿曼苏丹国

  名录名册类型:人类非物质文化遗产代表作名录

图2 在阿曼索哈尔举办的第三届民俗文化节上的热孜法表演(来源:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

  ▲ 英文简介

Al-Razfa is a traditional performing art practised throughout the United Arab Emirates and the Sultanate of Oman. It is performed by men of all ages and classes during social occasions, such as weddings and national festivals. Male performers form two facing lines with dancers filling the space between. Led by the main singer, the two rows create a dual chorus, singing chants in an antiphonal manner to the accompaniment of drums and other instruments. Many chants are verses of traditional Nabati poetry, carefully selected to match the occasion. The dancers perform choreographed movements to the music while holding wooden replica rifles in their hands and in some cases, young girls swing their hair in time to the music. Originally performed as a communal celebration of victory, Al-Razfa is now widely popular as a form of entertainment. Practitioners have adapted musical instruments and composed melodies to interest younger audiences while maintaining the older expressions and oral traditions of the art. Performers may include heads of State and elders or very young children. Today, Al-Razfa is transmitted directly within the family through participation and observation at social occasions. The roles of individual performers are learnt by practice, while girls receive instruction from their mothers and older sisters.

图3 在阿布扎比的传统手工艺节上,年长的表演者正在传授孩子们热孜法表演技巧(来源:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

  ▲ 中文简介

热孜法是在阿拉伯联合酋长国和阿曼苏丹国盛行的一种传统表演艺术。不同年龄、不同阶层的男性在婚礼、国家节日这种社交场合表演热孜法。男性表演者面对面站成两行,舞者位于行间。在主唱的带领下,随着鼓和其他乐器的伴奏,两排表演者形成双合唱团,轮流吟唱。许多吟唱的内容来源于传统纳巴蒂体诗歌,并根据具体场合精心挑选相应诗句。舞者手持木质仿制步枪,随着音乐表演精心编排好的舞蹈。有时候,年轻女孩会随着音乐的节奏摆动她们的长发。热孜法最初只在共同庆祝胜利时表演,如今已是一种广受欢迎的娱乐形式。在保留这种表演艺术中较为古老的表达方式和口头传统的同时,表演从业者改良乐器,谱写旋律,以吸引年轻观众。热孜法表演者包括国家元首、年长者或是非常年幼的儿童。现今,通过对社交场合的参与和观察,热孜法表演艺术直接在家族内传承。每个表演者通过练习逐渐掌握其角色,女孩们则接受来自母亲和姐姐的指导。


译介项目十三

拔河仪式和比赛

Tugging rituals and games

图4 拔河仪式和比赛中,两队力争将绳子拉向自己的一方(来源:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

  ▲ 项目基本信息

  入选年份:2015

  申报国家:柬埔寨王国、菲律宾共和国、大韩民国、越南社会主义共和国

  名录名册类型:人类非物质文化遗产代表作名录

图5 在越南永福省举行的拔河仪式和比赛活动(来源:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

  ▲ 英文简介

Tugging rituals and games in the rice-farming cultures of East Asia and Southeast Asia are enacted among communities to ensure abundant harvests and prosperity. They promote social solidarity, provide entertainment and mark the start of a new agricultural cycle. Many tugging rituals and games also have profound religious significance. Most variations include two teams, each of which pulls one end of a rope attempting to tug it from the other. The intentionally uncompetitive nature of the event removes the emphasis on winning or losing, affirming that these traditions are performed to promote the well-being of the community, and reminding members of the importance of cooperation. Many tugging games bear the traces of agricultural rituals, symbolizing the strength of natural forces, such as the sun and rain while also incorporating mythological elements or purification rites. Tugging rituals and games are often organized in front of a village’s communal house or shrine, preceded by commemorative rites to local protective deities. Village elders play active roles in leading and organizing younger people in playing the game and holding accompanying rituals. Tugging rituals and games also serve to strengthen unity and solidarity and sense of belonging and identity among community members.

图6 韩国忠清南道机池市拔河民俗庆典中,参与者努力拉拽每股绳子(来源:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

图7 机池市拔河民俗庆典(来源:韩国旅游发展局官方网站)

  ▲ 中文简介

在东亚和东南亚地区的稻作文化中,举行拔河仪式和比赛活动是为了确保五谷丰登、繁荣兴旺。该项目促进社会团结、为人们提供娱乐,并标志着新一轮农业周期的开启,同时,也具有深刻的宗教意义。该项活动的大部分形式都包含两支队伍,他们各拉绳子的一端,试图将绳子从另一队手中拉走。拔河仪式和比赛的目的并非竞争性质,所以重点不在输赢。这项传统活动的举办可以提升社区幸福感,并提醒社区成员合作的重要性。许多拔河比赛都带有农耕仪式活动的痕迹,这些仪式象征着自然力的强大,如太阳和雨水,同时也融入了神话元素或净化仪式。拔河仪式和比赛通常在村庄的公共空间或神社前举办,在此之前是有关地方保护神的纪念仪式。在带领和组织年轻人参与比赛和举办相关仪式的过程中,村中的长者发挥着积极作用。拔河仪式和比赛也有助于增强社区成员的团结统一,以及归属感和认同感。

往期回顾请点击:

1.【“一带一路”非遗项目译介】第1期:从“一带一路”国家非遗数据说起

2.【“一带一路”非遗项目译介】第2期:沙士木卡姆音乐、蒙古族长调民歌

3.【“一带一路”非遗项目译介】第3期:塔古尔达,阿拉伯联合酋长国和阿曼苏丹国贝都因人的传统诗歌吟唱+男子群体圣诞颂歌仪式

4.【“一带一路”非遗项目译介】第4期:地中海饮食文化+吉尔吉斯和哈萨克毡房制作的传统知识和技艺

5.【“一带一路”非遗项目译介】第5期:阿曼苏丹国和阿拉伯联合酋长国传统表演艺术艾亚拉+阿依特斯即兴表演艺术

6.【“一带一路”非遗项目译介】第6期:阿拉伯咖啡,慷慨的象征+马吉里斯,文化和社会空间

更多项目译介,请关注下期内容,我们将持续发布。(翻译:朱颖;翻译校对:李楠;图片:联合国教科文组织官方网站、韩国旅游发展局官方网站)


编辑:朱颖