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【“一带一路”非遗项目译介】第9期:烤馕制作和分享的文化: 拉瓦什、卡提尔玛、居甫卡、尤甫卡+斯洛伐克和捷克的木偶戏
来源:中国非物质文化遗产网     
作者:中国非物质文化遗产保护中心     
创建时间:2018-04-11 14:25:41

本文为“一带一路”非遗项目译介专题的第9期

译介项目十六

烤馕制作和分享的文化:拉瓦什、卡提尔玛、居甫卡、尤甫卡 

Flatbread making and sharing culture:

 Lavash, Katyrma, Jupka, Yufka

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图1 阿塞拜疆人民制作传统烤馕拉瓦什(来源:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

  ▲ 项目基本信息

  入选年份:2016

申报国家:阿塞拜疆共和国、伊朗伊斯兰共和国、哈萨克斯坦共和国、吉尔吉斯共和国、土耳其共和国

名录名册类型:人类非物质文化遗产代表作名录

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图2 吉尔吉斯斯坦人围坐在放着烤馕的餐桌旁(来源:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

  ▲ 英文简介

The culture of making and sharing flatbread in communities of Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkey carries social functions that have enabled it to continue as a widely-practised tradition. Making the bread (lavash, katyrma, jupka or yufka) involves at least three people, often family members, with each having a role in its preparation and baking. In rural areas, neighbours participate in the process together. Traditional bakeries also make the bread. It is baked using a tandyr/tanūr (an earth or stone oven in the ground), sāj (a metal plate) or kazan (a cauldron). Besides regular meals, flatbread is shared at weddings, births, funerals, various holidays and during prayers. In Azerbaijan and Iran, it is put on the bride’s shoulders or crumbled over her head to wish the couple prosperity while in Turkey it is given to the couple’s neighbours. At funerals in Kazakhstan it is believed the bread should be prepared to protect the deceased while a decision is made from God and in Kyrgyzstan sharing the bread provides a better afterlife for the deceased. The practice, transmitted by participation within families and from master to apprentice, expresses hospitality, solidarity and certain beliefs that symbolize common cultural roots reinforcing community belonging.

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图3 土耳其烤馕制作过程(来源:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

  ▲ 中文简介

阿塞拜疆、伊朗、哈萨克斯坦、吉尔吉斯斯坦和土耳其社区的烤馕制作和分享文化承载着多种社会功能,使其能长久地作为一种传统在这些国家广泛流传。制作烤馕(拉瓦什、卡提尔玛、居甫卡或尤甫卡)至少需要三个人,一般为家庭成员,每人在准备和烘焙环节发挥各自作用。在乡村,邻居们一起参与到烤馕制作过程中。传统面包店也制作烤馕。烘焙所用工具包含:地上支起的土灶或石灶、金属盘子或者金属大锅。除了作为日常饮食,人们还在婚礼、婴儿降生、葬礼、各种节假日,以及祈祷仪式上分享烤馕。在阿塞拜疆和伊朗,人们将烤馕放在新娘的肩膀上或是将其弄碎后撒在新娘头上,以此种方式祝福新人生活美满;而在土耳其,人们将烤馕送给新人的邻居。在哈萨克斯坦,人们相信在葬礼上准备烤馕可以保护正在等待上帝审判的逝者。在吉尔吉斯斯坦,分享烤馕能为逝者带来一个更好的来世。烤馕制作和分享文化通过家族传承和师徒传承得以延续,此项习俗表达了好客、团结及特定信仰,这些共同的文化根源增强了社区归属感。

译介项目十七

斯洛伐克和捷克的木偶戏

Puppetry in Slovakia and Czechia

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图4 在斯洛伐克首都伯拉第斯拉瓦表演的剧目《 约翰尼斯·浮士德》中的木偶形象(来源:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

  ▲ 项目基本信息

  入选年份:2016

  申报国家:斯洛伐克共和国、捷克共和国

  名录名册类型:人类非物质文化遗产代表作名录

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图5 木偶戏表演(来源:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

  ▲ 英文简介

Puppet theatre for communities in Slovakia and Czechia is not only a popular form of traditional entertainment but also a way of conveying a vision of the world, and an educational tool with messages on moral values. The puppets, whose characters are real or imaginary, are mostly made of wood and animated using various methods. Initial bearers of the practice were families of travelling puppeteers whose works later absorbed local influences in language and themes using namely comical figures with distinct characteristics. Puppet theatre is an integral part of Slovak and Czech local theatre and literary tradition. It also plays an important role in socialization, helping performers to develop as creative thinkers and learn about cooperation, communication and to strengthen their sense of identity in society. Featuring with other traditional rituals and festive events like feast days, markets and fairs, puppet shows today come in many different forms but still draw from tradition. Practice bearers include performers, playwrights, puppet and costume makers, as well as stage designers. Skills are transmitted by imitation and practice within performer communities, while in Slovakia also transmission takes place in traditional puppetry dynasties, as well as through workshops run by not-for-profit organizations and music and arts schools.

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图6 观众观看木偶戏演出(来源:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

  ▲ 中文简介

在斯洛伐克和捷克的社区中,木偶戏不仅是一种流行的传统娱乐形式,还是一种表达世界观的方式及传达道德价值的教育工具。木偶的人物形象无论是真实的还是虚构的,大部分由木头制成,并通过多种方法使其活灵活现。木偶戏的最初传承人是巡游演出的木偶艺人家庭,他们创作的作品后来受到了地方语言和主题的影响,即使用具有鲜明性格特征的滑稽人物。木偶戏是斯洛伐克和捷克地方戏剧和文学传统不可或缺的组成部分,还在社会化进程中发挥着重要作用,它能帮助表演者开启创造性思维,学习合作与沟通,并增强他们的社会认同感。木偶戏和宗教节日、市场、集会这类传统仪式和节庆活动密切相关。如今的木偶戏形式多样,但仍沿袭传统。木偶戏的传承人包括表演者、编剧、木偶和服装制作者,以及舞台设计师。技艺在表演者群体中通过模仿和练习得以承续。在斯洛伐克,木偶戏还在传统木偶艺术世家、非营利组织开办的工作坊,以及音乐和艺术学校中传承。

往期回顾请点击:

1.【“一带一路”非遗项目译介】第1期:从“一带一路”国家非遗数据说起

2.【“一带一路”非遗项目译介】第2期:沙士木卡姆音乐、蒙古族长调民歌

3.【“一带一路”非遗项目译介】第3期:塔古尔达,阿拉伯联合酋长国和阿曼苏丹国贝都因人的传统诗歌吟唱+男子群体圣诞颂歌仪式

4.【“一带一路”非遗项目译介】第4期:地中海饮食文化+吉尔吉斯和哈萨克毡房制作的传统知识和技艺

5.【“一带一路”非遗项目译介】第5期:阿曼苏丹国和阿拉伯联合酋长国传统表演艺术艾亚拉+阿依特斯即兴表演艺术

6.【“一带一路”非遗项目译介】第6期:阿拉伯咖啡,慷慨的象征+马吉里斯,文化和社会空间

7.【“一带一路”非遗项目译介】第7期:热孜法,传统表演艺术+拔河仪式和比赛

8.【“一带一路”非遗项目译介】第8期: 诺鲁孜节+罗马尼亚和摩尔多瓦共和国的传统壁毯制作技艺

更多项目译介,请关注下期内容,我们将持续发布。(翻译:朱颖;翻译校对:李楠;图片:联合国教科文组织官方网站)


编辑:朱颖