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【“一带一路”非遗项目译介】第 11 期:与3月1日相关的文化习俗+希得莱斯,春季庆典
来源:中国非物质文化遗产网      
作者:中国非物质文化遗产保护中心      
创建时间:2018-05-11 09:44:01

本文为“一带一路”非遗项目译介专题的第11期

译介项目二十

三月结文化实践

Cultural practices associated to the 1st of March

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图1 与3月1日相关的文化习俗(来源:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

  ▲ 项目基本信息

  入选年份:2017

申报国家:保加利亚共和国、前南斯拉夫马其顿共和国、摩尔多瓦共和国、罗马尼亚

名录名册类型:人类非物质文化遗产代表作名录

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图2 与3月1日相关的文化习俗(来源:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

  ▲ 英文简介

Cultural Practices Associated to the 1st of March comprise traditions transmitted since ancient times to celebrate the beginning of spring. The main practice consists of making, offering and wearing a red and white thread, which is then untied when the first blossom tree, swallow or stork is seen. A few other local practices also form part of a larger spring celebration, such as purification actions in Moldova. The artefact is considered to provide symbolic protection against perils such as capricious weather, with the practice ensuring a safe passage from winter to spring for individuals, groups and communities. All members of the communities concerned participate, irrespective of their age, and the practice contributes to social cohesion, intergenerational exchange and interaction with nature, fostering diversity and creativity. Informal education is the most frequent means of transmission: in rural areas, young girls are taught how to make the thread by older women, while in urban areas apprentices learn from teachers, craftspeople and through informal education. Another occasion for transmission is provided by Martenitsa/Martinka/Mărţişor workshops organized by ethnographic museums. The communities concerned are actively involved in efforts to inventory, research, document and promote the element, and numerous cultural projects geared at its safeguarding are underway.

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图3 与3月1日相关的文化习俗(来源:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

  ▲ 中文简介

三月结文化实践包括自古传承至今的庆祝春天到来的各种传统。主要的实践包括制作、提供和佩戴红白线制成的手工制品,当人们第一次看到开花的树、燕子或者鹳时,便将其解开。一些其他的地方实践同样是更大型春季庆典的组成部分,例如摩尔多瓦的净化行为。人们认为手工制品能提供象征性的保护,以抵御诸如反复无常的天气这类险情。这些实践确保个人、团体和社区能平安地从冬季过渡到春季。相关社区内的所有成员,无论年龄大小,全部参与其中。这一实践有助于提升社会凝聚力,促进代际交流以及人与自然的互动,从而增强文化多样性和人类创造力。非正规教育是该项目最常见的传承方式。在乡村,年长的女性教授年轻女孩如何制作红白线手工制品,而在城市中,学徒通过非正规教育,从老师和手工艺人那里学习这项技艺。另一种传承场合是由民族博物馆组织的Martenitsa(红白线制成的手工制品)讲习班。该实践相关社区积极努力参与该项目的清单制定、研究、立档和宣传活动,许多基于保护目的的文化项目也正在进行当中。

译介项目二十一

希得莱斯,春季庆典

Spring celebration, Hıdrellez

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图4 希得莱斯,春季庆典(来源:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

  ▲ 项目基本信息

  入选年份:2017

  申报国家:前南斯拉夫马其顿共和国、土耳其共和国

  名录名册类型:人类非物质文化遗产代表作名录

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图5 希得莱斯,春季庆典(来源:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

  ▲ 英文简介

The Spring Celebration ‘Hidrellez’ takes place annually on 6 May, which is recognized as Spring Day, or the awakening of nature. ‘Hidrellez’ is a compound noun derived from ‘Hidir’ and ‘Ilyas’, which are believed to be the protectors of earth and water and the helpers of individuals, families and communities in need of them. To mark this occasion, various ceremonies and rituals connected with nature are performed, guaranteeing the wellbeing, fertility and prosperity of the family and community and protecting livestock and crops for the upcoming year. The element belongs to all participants: families, children, youth, adults, dancers and singers. The rituals have deep-rooted cultural meanings and provide the community with a sense of belonging and cultural identity and an opportunity to strengthen relations. The communities concerned ensure the viability of the element by participating in the Spring Celebration on an annual basis. The complex organization of related events at the local, regional and national levels ensures the wide participation of individuals, groups and communities. The element is recognized as a key part of the cultural identity of the local communities and related knowledge and skills are transmitted within the family and between community members through oral communication, observation, participation and performances.

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图6 希得莱斯,春季庆典(来源:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

  ▲ 中文简介

春季庆典“希得莱斯”在每年五月六日举行,人们视其为春季节,或自然的觉醒。“希得莱斯(Hıdrellez)”是一个复合名词,衍生于“赫迪尔(Hidir)”和“以利亚(Ilyas)”,这二者被视为大地和水的保护者,同时,也是需要他们保护的个人、家庭和社区的帮手。为了纪念这一时刻,人们举办各种与自然相关的庆典和仪式,以保障家庭和社区的幸福、兴旺和繁荣,并确保来年牲畜和庄稼的平安、丰硕。该项目属于所有的参与者:家庭、儿童、青年人、成年人、舞者和歌手。该习俗具有根深蒂固的文化内涵,能为社区提供归属感和文化认同感,是增强人际关系的重要契机。相关社区通过每年参与春季庆典来确保其存续力。地方、区域和国家各级相关活动的复杂组织确保了个人、团体和社区的广泛参与。该项目是地方社区文化认同的关键组成部分,其相关知识和技能在家庭内部和社区成员间,通过口头交流、观察、参与和表演等方式传承。

  截至本期,“一带一路”非遗项目译介专题已全部完成,以下为往期回顾,点击图片可查看译介原文。


▲ 第 1 期:从“一带一路”国家非遗数据说起  


▲ 第 2 期:沙士木卡姆音乐+蒙古族长调民歌


▲ 第 3 期:塔古尔达,阿拉伯联合酋长国和阿曼苏丹国贝都因人的传统诗歌吟唱+男子群体圣诞颂歌仪式


▲ 第 4 期:地中海饮食文化+吉尔吉斯和哈萨克毡房制作的传统知识和技艺


▲ 第 5 期:阿曼苏丹国和阿拉伯联合酋长国传统表演艺术艾亚拉+阿依特斯即兴表演艺术


▲ 第 6 期:阿拉伯咖啡,慷慨的象征+马吉里斯,文化和社会空间


▲ 第 7 期:热孜法,传统表演艺术+拔河仪式和比赛


▲ 第 8 期:诺鲁孜节+罗马尼亚和摩尔多瓦共和国的传统壁毯制作技艺


▲ 第 9 期:烤馕制作和分享的文化: 拉瓦什、卡提尔玛、居甫卡、尤甫卡+斯洛伐克和捷克的木偶戏


▲ 第 10 期:猎鹰训练术,一项活态人类遗产+弓弦乐器卡曼查的制作和演奏艺术

翻译:朱颖;翻译校对:李楠;图片:联合国教科文组织官方网站

编辑:朱颖