【译介】蒙古笛的长调民歌演奏技巧——循环呼吸法+赫哲族伊玛堪
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【译介】蒙古笛的长调民歌演奏技巧——循环呼吸法+赫哲族伊玛堪
来源: 中国非物质文化遗产网     
作者: 中国非物质文化遗产保护中心     
创建时间:2018-08-08 09:32:04

  编者按:“中国非物质文化遗产保护中心”微信公众号将在以往译介工作基础上,继续开展对联合国教科文组织相关非遗名录项目内容的翻译介绍,每期更新两个项目。本专题项目简介译文仅供广大读者参考使用,不妥之处,欢迎留言指正。

译介项目三

蒙古笛的长调民歌演奏技巧

——循环呼吸法

Folk long song performance technique of Limbe performances 

- circular breathing

图1 蒙古笛演奏者U.Batjargal


  项目基本信息

  入选年份:2011

  申报国家:蒙古国

  名录名册类型:急需保护的非物质文化遗产名录

图2 中间为蒙古笛演奏者

  英文简介

  The Limbe is a side-blown flute of hardwood or bamboo, traditionally used to perform Mongolian folk long songs. Through the use of circular breathing, Limbe performers are able to produce the continuous, wide-ranging melodies characteristic of the long song. Players breathe in through the nose while simultaneously blowing out through the mouth, using air stored in their cheeks to play the flute without interruption. Single stanzas of folk long song last approximately four to five minutes. A single song consists of three to five or more stanzas, which requires performance of the flute to continue uninterrupted for twelve to twenty-five minutes. Traditional training methods used to acquire this technique include continuously blowing at a candle flame without extinguishing it and blowing through a straw into a glass of water. Limbe playing is characterized by euphonious melodies, melisma, hidden tunes and skilful and delicate movements of the fingers and tongue. The small number of bearers of the element has become cause for concern with a considerable decrease in groups and individual practitioners. This has been caused in part by the predominance of international musical forms and training systems. At present, the frequency and extent of this traditional element’s practice are unstable with only fourteen Limbe practitioners remaining.

图3 家庭内部传承蒙古笛演奏技巧

  中文简介

  蒙古笛是一种由硬木或竹子制成的横笛,传统上用来演奏蒙古族长调民歌。通过使用循环呼吸法,蒙古笛演奏者可以表现出长调那连绵不断、音域宽广的特点。演奏者用鼻吸气,同时用口呼气,利用脸颊内存入的气体无间断地吹奏。长调民歌的每一节大约持续4到5分钟。一支歌曲由3至5节或者更长的章节组成,这就需要12到25分钟的连续吹奏。这项技能的传统训练方法通常包括:持续地对着蜡烛火苗吹气而不使其熄灭,以及通过吸管向水杯内吹气。蒙古笛的演奏特点包括悦耳的旋律、装饰音、隐藏的曲调,以及灵巧而微妙的手指和舌头动作。随着团体和个人从业者人数的大幅下降,此项目持有者人数之少已经引起人们的关注。部分原因是由国际音乐形式和训练体系的主导地位所致。目前,这一传统项目的实践频率和程度并不稳定,仅剩14名从业者。


译介项目四

赫哲族伊玛堪

Hezhen Yimakan storytelling

图4 赫哲族伊玛堪


  项目基本信息

  入选年份:2011

  申报国家:中国

  名录名册类型:急需保护的非物质文化遗产名录

图5 赫哲族伊玛堪

  英文简介

  Yimakan storytelling is essential to the worldview and historical memory of the Hezhen ethnic minority of north-east China. Narrated in the Hezhen language, and taking both verse and prose forms, Yimakan storytelling consists of many independent episodes depicting tribal alliances and battles, including the defeat of monsters and invaders by Hezhen heroes. This oral heritage highlights the defence of ethnic identity and territorial integrity, but also preserves traditional knowledge of shamanic rituals, fishing and hunting. Yimakan performers improvise stories without instrumental accompaniment, alternating between singing and speaking, and make use of different melodies to represent different characters and plots. They usually train in a master-apprentice relationship within their own clans and families, although today outsiders are increasingly accepted for apprenticeship. As the Hezhen have no writing system, Yimakan plays a key role in preserving their mother tongue, religion, beliefs, folklore and customs. However, with the acceleration of modernization and the standardization of school education, the Hezhen mother tongue is now endangered. At present, only the elders can speak their native language. This loss has become a major obstacle to the promotion and sustainability of the Yimakan tradition. Only five master storytellers are currently capable of performing the episodes – a situation aggravated by the deaths of a number of veteran storytellers, and the departure of younger generations to cities in search of employment.

图6 赫哲族伊玛堪

  中文简介

  伊玛堪是中国东北部赫哲族人民世界观和历史记忆的重要组成部分。伊玛堪用赫哲语叙述,采用诗歌和散文的形式,由许多独立曲目组成,描述部落联盟与战争,包括赫哲族英雄战胜恶魔和入侵者的故事。这项口头传统强调对民族身份和领地完整性的保护,也保存了有关萨满仪式、捕鱼和狩猎的传统知识。伊玛堪表演者在没有乐器伴奏的情况下即兴创作故事,唱和说交替进行,并利用不同的旋律来表现不同的人物和情节。尽管现今有越来越多的外人可以成为伊玛堪学徒,但他们通常还是在部落和家庭内部以师徒传承的方式进行训练。由于赫哲族没有书写系统,所以伊玛堪在保护母语、宗教、信仰、传说和习俗方面发挥着重要作用。然而,随着现代化进程的加快和学校教育的规范化,赫哲人的母语已濒临消亡。目前,仅年长者能讲他们的母语。这种损失已成为伊玛堪口头传统宣传和可持续发展的主要障碍。如今仅有五位说唱大师能够表演曲目,数位资深的说唱艺人相继去世,年轻人远离家乡到城市就业,使得伊玛堪的传承实践状况加剧恶化。(翻译:李楠 翻译校对:朱颖 英文 / 图片:联合国教科文组织官方网站)

编辑:李楠 朱颖