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【译介】千手舞+马里的智慧仪式——秘密社团“夸莱杜嘎”
来源:中国非物质文化遗产网      
作者:中国非物质文化遗产保护中心     
创建时间:2018-09-07 14:54:01

  编者按:“中国非物质文化遗产保护中心”微信公众号将在以往译介工作基础上,继续开展对联合国教科文组织相关非遗名录项目内容的翻译介绍,每期更新两个项目。本专题项目简介译文仅供广大读者参考使用,不妥之处,欢迎留言指正。

译介项目七

千手舞

Saman dance

图1 表演者跪坐着吟唱诗歌

  项目基本信息

  入选年份:2011

  申报国家:印度尼西亚共和国

  名录名册类型:急需保护的非物质文化遗产名录

 

图2 正在练习千手舞的儿童

  英文简介

The Saman dance is part of the cultural heritage of the Gayo people of Aceh province in Sumatra. Boys and young men perform the Saman sitting on their heels or kneeling in tight rows. Each wears a black costume embroidered with colourful Gayo motifs symbolizing nature and noble values. The leader sits in the middle of the row and leads the singing of verses, mostly in the Gayo language. These offer guidance and can be religious, romantic or humorous in tone. Dancers clap their hands, slap their chests, thighs and the ground, click their fingers, and sway and twist their bodies and heads in time with the shifting rhythm – in unison or alternating with the moves of opposing dancers. These movements symbolize the daily lives of the Gayo people and their natural environment. The Saman is performed to celebrate national and religious holidays, cementing relationships between village groups who invite each other for performances. The frequency of Saman performances and its transmission are decreasing, however. Many leaders with knowledge of the Saman are now elderly and without successors. Other forms of entertainment and new games are replacing informal transmission, and many young people now emigrate to further their education. Lack of funds is also a constraint, as Saman costumes and performances involve considerable expense.

 

图3 千手舞表演

  中文简介

千手舞是苏门答腊岛亚齐省迦佑人民文化遗产的组成部分。男孩和年轻男子跪坐着或跪成紧凑的一排进行表演。每个表演者都穿着绣有五颜六色迦佑图案的黑色服装,那些图案象征着自然和高尚的价值观。领唱者坐在一排人中间,大多用迦佑语领唱诗歌。这些可以提供指导,语调上可以是宗教的、浪漫的或幽默的。舞者们拍手,拍击胸部、大腿和地面,打响指,随着节奏的变化摇摆并扭动身体和头部——与对面舞者的动作保持一致或交替进行。这些动作象征着迦佑人民的日常生活和自然环境。千手舞表演是为了庆祝国家和宗教节日,村落群体间相互邀请表演,从而巩固他们之间的关系。然而,千手舞的表演频率和传承正在减弱。许多了解千手舞知识的带头人年事已高,没有继承者。其他娱乐形式和新的游戏正在取代千手舞的非正式传承,许多年轻人现移居国外深造学习。千手舞的服装和表演耗资巨大,资金不足也是限制千手舞发展的一个制约因素。


译介项目八

马里的智慧仪式

——秘密社团“夸莱杜嘎”

Secret society of the Kôrêdugaw, 

the rite of wisdom in Mali

 

图4 红豆项链及各种装饰物

  项目基本信息

  入选年份:2011

  申报国家:马里共和国

  名录名册类型:急需保护的非物质文化遗产名录

 

图5 马里的智慧仪式——秘密社团“夸莱杜嘎”

  英文简介

The secret society of the Kôrêdugaw is a rite of wisdom central to the cultural identity of the Bambara, Malinké, Senufo and Samogo peoples of Mali. Initiates dress in ragged coats adorned with red bean necklaces and a large quantity of miscellaneous items. They provoke laughter with behaviour characterized by gluttony, caustic humour and wit, but also possess great intelligence and wisdom. The society educates, trains and prepares children to cope with life and to deal with social problems. Its members also act as social mediators and play key roles in festivals and many other occasions. The Kôrêdugaw are also herbalists and traditional therapists whose knowledge of plants is used to cure illnesses, ward off bad luck, treat childless women and impart blessings. They symbolize generosity, tolerance, inoffensiveness and mastery of knowledge, embodying the rules of conduct that they advocate for others. Members come from all social and professional groups, irrespective of ethnicity, gender or religion, and one becomes a Kôrêduga by inherited status, instruction by spirits or training with a master. Knowledge and know-how are transmitted during annual initiation ceremonies. Today, traditional modes of transmission are threatened by the decreasing number of initiates due to the predominance of urban lifestyles among younger generations, and ritual practices take place less and less regularly.

 

图6 马里的智慧仪式——秘密社团“夸莱杜嘎”

中文简介

秘密社团“夸莱杜嘎”是一种智慧仪式,它是马里的班巴拉人、马林克人、塞努弗人和萨莫果人文化认同的核心。新入社的人穿着破旧的外套,身上戴着红豆项链和大量各式各样的装饰物。他们以暴饮暴食、刻薄的幽默感和机智的行为引人发笑,但同时也充满聪明才智。社团教育、训练儿童,帮助他们应对生活和处理社会问题。社团成员还扮演着社会调解员的角色,在节日和许多其他场合发挥着重要作用。“夸莱杜嘎”社员也是草药师和传统治疗师,他们利用掌握的植物知识治疗疾病、抵御厄运、治疗未育的妇女和传递祝福。他们象征着慷慨、宽容、与人为善和丰富学识,体现了他们所倡导的行为准则。社团成员来自各类社会和专业团体,不分族群、性别或宗教信仰。人们通过地位的继承、神灵的教导或大师的训练才能成为社员。知识和专门技能在每年的入社仪式上得以传承。如今,在年轻一代中,城市生活方式占据主导地位,这使得入社成员越来越少,传统的传承方式受到威胁,而且仪式实践也变得愈发稀少。

编辑:朱颖 李楠