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【译介】波斯湾地区伊朗蓝吉木船的传统造船与航海技术+伊奥夸——埃纳韦尼·纳维人为维护社会及宇宙秩序而举行的仪式
来源:中国非物质文化遗产网     
作者:中国非物质文化遗产保护中心      
创建时间:2018-09-27 09:30:50

编者按:“中国非物质文化遗产保护中心”微信公众号将在以往译介工作基础上,继续开展对联合国教科文组织相关非遗名录项目内容的翻译介绍,每期更新两个项目。本专题项目简介译文仅供广大读者参考使用,不妥之处,欢迎留言指正。

译介项目九

波斯湾地区伊朗蓝吉木船的传统造船与航海技术

Traditional skills of building and sailing Iranian Lenj boats in the Persian Gulf

图1 波斯湾地区伊朗蓝吉木船的传统造船与航海技术

  项目基本信息

  入选年份:2011

  申报国家:伊朗伊斯兰共和国

  名录名册类型:急需保护的非物质文化遗产名录

图2 波斯湾地区伊朗蓝吉木船的传统造船与航海技术

  英文简介

  Iranian Lenj vessels are traditionally hand-built and are used by inhabitants of the northern coast of the Persian Gulf for sea journeys, trading, fishing and pearl diving. The traditional knowledge surrounding Lenjes includes oral literature, performing arts and festivals, in addition to the sailing and navigation techniques and terminology and weather forecasting that are closely associated with sailing, and the skills of wooden boat-building itself.The navigational knowledge used to sail Lenjes was traditionally passed on from father to son. Iranian navigators could locate the ship according to the positions of the sun, moon and stars; they used special formulae to calculate latitudes and longitudes, as well as water depth. Each wind was given a name, which along with the colour of water or the height of waves was used to help forecast the weather. Specific music and rhythms also constituted inseparable parts of sailing in the Persian Gulf, with sailors singing particular songs while working. Nowadays, the community of practitioners is small and mainly comprises older people. Wooden Lenjes are being replaced by cheaper fibreglass substitutes, and wooden Lenj construction workshops are being transformed into repair shops for older Lenjes. The philosophy, ritualistic background, culture and traditional knowledge of sailing in the Persian Gulf are gradually fading, although some of the associated ceremonies continue to be practised in a few places.

图3 波斯湾地区伊朗蓝吉木船的传统造船与航海技术

  中文简介

  伊朗蓝吉木船传统上是手工制造的,波斯湾北部沿海的居民用它来开展航海、贸易、捕鱼和珍珠采集活动。与蓝吉木船相关的传统知识包括:航行、导航技术与术语,与航行密切相关的天气预测,木船制造技艺本身,以及口头文学、表演艺术和节庆。有关蓝吉木船的航行知识按传统是父亲传给儿子。伊朗航行者能够依据太阳、月亮和星星的位置为船只定位;他们运用特殊的公式计算经纬度和水深。海风各有其名,与水的颜色或浪的高度一起,都可以用来预测天气。海员们边工作边歌唱,所唱歌曲的独特音乐与节奏是波斯湾航海不可分割的一部分。现在,该项目的从业者社区较小,且主要是年长者。蓝吉木船正被更廉价的玻璃纤维制品所取代,蓝吉木船的制造车间正在被改造成旧木船的修理厂。尽管一些地方还在举行某些相关仪式,但有关波斯湾航海的理念、仪式背景、文化和传统知识却正在消退。

 

译介项目十

伊奥夸——埃纳韦尼·纳维人为维护社会

及宇宙秩序而举行的仪式

Yaokwa, the Enawene Nawe people's ritual for the maintenance of 

social and cosmic order

图4 伊奥夸

  项目基本信息

  入选年份:2011

  申报国家:巴西联邦共和国

  名录名册类型:急需保护的非物质文化遗产名录

 

图5 伊奥夸

  英文简介

The Enawene Nawe people live in the basin of the Juruena River in the southern Amazon rainforest. They perform the Yaokwa ritual every year during the drought period to honour the Yakairiti spirits, thereby ensuring cosmic and social order for the different clans. The ritual links local biodiversity to a complex, symbolic cosmology that connects the different but inseparable domains of society, culture and nature. It is integrated into their everyday activities over the course of seven months during which the clans alternate responsibilities: one group embarks on fishing expeditions throughout the area while another prepares offerings of rock salt, fish and ritual food for the spirits, and performs music and dance. The ritual combines knowledge of agriculture, food processing, handicrafts (costumes, tools and musical instruments) and the construction of houses and fishing dams. Yaokwa and the local biodiversity it celebrates represent an extremely delicate and fragile ecosystem whose continuity depends directly on its conservation. However, both are now seriously threatened by deforestation and invasive practices, including intensive mining and logging, extensive livestock activity, water pollution, degradation of headwaters, unregulated processes of urban settlement, construction of roads, waterways and dams, drainage and diversion of rivers, burning of forests and illegal fishing and trade in wildlife.

图6 伊奥夸

中文简介

  在亚马逊雨林南部的茹鲁埃纳河流域生活着埃纳韦尼·纳维人。他们每年旱季都会举行伊奥夸仪式,以示对亚凯里提(“Yakairiti”的音译)神灵的敬奉,从而保障不同宗族的宇宙及社会秩序。此项仪式将地方生物多样性与复杂的、象征性的宇宙观连接到一起,这种宇宙观使完全不同又密不可分的社会、文化和自然领域相互关联。在七个月的过程中,此项仪式融入到人们的日常活动中,各个宗族交替负责:一个群体开始出海捕鱼,另一群体预备祭祀神灵所用的岩盐、鱼和仪式供品,表演音乐和舞蹈。该仪式结合了农业、食品加工、手工艺品(服装、工具和乐器),以及房屋和渔坝建造的相关知识。伊奥夸及其所赞美的地方生物多样性代表着极为微妙且脆弱的生态系统,仪式的持续性直接取决于对生态系统的保护。然而,现在两者都受到了森林砍伐和入侵行为的严重威胁,包括密集采矿和伐木、大范围的牲畜活动、水污染、水源恶化、无序的城市化进程,以及道路、航道和堤坝的建设,河流的排水和改道,森林焚烧,非法捕鱼和野生生物交易等。

编辑:李楠 朱颖