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【译介】中国皮影戏+法国传统马术
来源:中国非物质文化遗产网     
作者:中国非物质文化遗产保护中心     
创建时间:2018-11-08 09:43:19

编者按:“中国非物质文化遗产保护中心”微信公众号将在以往译介工作基础上,继续开展对联合国教科文组织相关非遗名录项目内容的翻译介绍,每期更新两个项目。本专题项目简介译文仅供广大读者参考使用,不妥之处,欢迎留言指正。

译介项目十三

中国皮影戏

Chinese shadow puppetry

 

图1 中国皮影戏

  项目基本信息

  入选年份:2011

  申报国家:中国

  名录名册类型:人类非物质文化遗产代表作名录

图2 中国皮影戏

  英文简介

Chinese shadow puppetry is a form of theatre acted by colourful silhouette figures made from leather or paper, accompanied by music and singing. Manipulated by puppeteers using rods, the figures create the illusion of moving images on a translucent cloth screen illuminated from behind. Many elder shadow puppetry artists can perform dozens of traditional plays, which are orally transmitted or found in written form. They master special techniques such as improvisational singing, falsetto, simultaneous manipulation of several puppets, and the ability to play various musical instruments. Many puppeteers also carve the puppets, which can have between twelve and twenty-four moveable joints. Shadow plays are performed by large troupes with seven to nine performers and smaller troupes of only two to five, primarily for entertainment or religious rituals, weddings and funerals and other special occasions. Some puppeteers are professional, while others are amateurs performing during slack farming seasons. The relevant skills are handed down in families, in troupes, and from master to pupil. Chinese shadow puppetry also passes on information such as cultural history, social beliefs, oral traditions and local customs. It spreads knowledge, promotes cultural values and entertains the community, especially the youth.

图3 中国皮影戏

  中文简介

中国皮影戏是一种以皮制或纸制的彩色影偶形象,伴随音乐和演唱进行表演的戏剧形式。皮影艺人在幕后用木杆操控影偶,通过光线照射在半透明的幕布上创造出动态的形象。许多老艺人可以表演几十部传统剧目,这些作品有的通过口头传承,有的以书面形式呈现。皮影艺人身怀绝技,诸如可即兴演唱,真假声转换,一人同时操纵数个影偶,还能够演奏不同乐器。许多皮影艺人还会雕刻皮影,这些影人有十二到二十四个可活动的关节。七到九人的大剧团或只有二到五人的小戏班都可以表演皮影戏,主要在娱乐或宗教仪式、婚礼、葬礼和其他特殊场合进行表演。有些皮影艺人是专业的,有些是业余的,只在农闲时节表演。皮影戏的相关技艺通过家庭、戏班或师徒进行传承。中国皮影戏传递文化历史、社会信仰、口头传统和当地风俗等信息。它传播知识,提升文化价值,为社区,尤其是年轻人带来欢乐。

译介项目十四

法国传统马术

Equitation in the French tradition

 

图4 法国传统马术

  项目基本信息

  入选年份:2011

  申报国家:法国

  名录名册类型:人类非物质文化遗产代表作名录

图5 法国传统马术

  英文简介

Equitation in the French tradition is a school of horseback riding that emphasizes harmonious relations between humans and horses. The fundamental horse-training principles and processes are guided by non-violence and lack of constraint, blending human demands with respect for the horse’s body and mood. Knowledge of the animal itself (physiology, psychology, anatomy) and human nature (emotions and the body) , are complemented by a horseman’s state of mind that combines skill and respect for the horse. Fluidity of movements and flexibility of joints ensure that the horse participates in the exercises without coercion. Although practised throughout France and elsewhere, the most widely known community is the Cadre Noir of Saumur, based at the National School of Equitation. The common denominator among riders is the desire to establish close relations with the horse, build mutual respect and work towards achieving ‘lightness’. Cooperation between generations is strong, with respect for the experience of older riders, galvanized by the enthusiasm of younger riders. The Saumur region is also home to instructors, horse breeders, craftspeople (saddlers, boot-makers), veterinary services and blacksmiths. Frequent public displays and galas hosted by the Cadre Noir of Saumur help to sustain the visibility of equitation in the French tradition.

图6 法国传统马术

  中文简介

法国传统马术是一种强调人与马和谐相处的骑马运动。基本的马匹训练原则和过程以非暴力和少约束为主导,将人的需求与尊重马的身体和情绪相结合。骑士那种将技巧与尊重马匹相结合的心境,有助于增进对动物本身(生理机能、心理状态、身体结构)和人类本性(情感和身体)的了解。马匹动作的流畅性和关节的灵活性说明它们是在非强迫的情况下参与训练。马术虽然在法国和其他地方都有,但最广为人知的社区是设置在法国国家马术学院的索米尔黑骑士马术团。骑手之间的共同点是渴望与马建立密切关系,人与马相互尊重,并一起努力达到“轻盈”的状态。代际之间的合作是牢固的,年少骑士尊重资深骑士的经验,资深骑士被年轻骑士的热情所感染。索米尔地区也是教练、马匹饲养员、工匠(马鞍工、靴匠)、兽医和铁匠的家园。索米尔黑骑士马术团经常举行公开展览和盛会,这有助于保持法国传统马术的可见度。

编辑:朱颖 李楠